In the second alternative, retailer assumes ownership of the inventory, but receives an invoice upon delivery. Wszyscy gracze na tym samym kontynencie - kontynent to często szeroka wstęga ale z przesmykami , prawie dookoła świata, czasami całkiem dookoła, rzadko zwarty, czasami morze wewnętrzne, wysp mało - gł.
For example, single-vendor single-retailer VMI model was extended for multi-product case,  the consignment stock CS and discount. As replenishment frequencies play an important role in integrated inventory models to reduce the total cost of supply chains which many studies fail to model it in mathematical problems.
Components of VMI[ Vikipedia Opcje zapasow Handel ] 1. Inventory location In VMI practice, inventory location depends on the arrangement between the vendor and the customer.
The first option is for the inventory to be located both at the customer's and the supplier's premises. For the supplier, this serves as a safeguard against short delivery cycles or unsynchronized production cycles. The latter can be a solution for buyers that have outsourced part or all of their logistics operations. Managing the inventory at the central warehouse enables better optimization of deliveries, lower costs and ultimately enables the buyer to maximize economies of scale.
Inventory Ownership Inventory ownership refers to the ownership of the inventory and when the invoice is being issued to the retailer. In vendor managed inventory, there is a number of solutions in terms of payment and transfer of ownership.
Invoice is issued when the items are issued from the stock. In the second alternative, retailer assumes ownership of the inventory, but receives an invoice upon delivery.
However, the vendor is not paid until the customer issues the items from stock and within a delay according to agreed terms of payment. Level of Demand Visibility These elements refer to the type of demand information shared by customers to assist the suppliers in controlling their inventory.
Many types of demand information are shared in VMI Program. The demand information that are visible to the supplier are: sales data, stock withdrawal, production schedule, inventory level, goods in transit, back order, incoming order and return. It also provides a better understanding of the seasonal changes, and helps figuring out critical times.
With the increasing visibility of information, the supplier has longer timeframe for replenishment arrangement  The supplier also gets real time visibility, which allows him to have a hand on the inventory for the buyer demand forecast, which allows for projecting inventory based on future demand to target his inventory minimize or maximize it.
The data is based on real quantities of produced and sold items. This agreement to share information is aimed at maintaining a steady flow of necessary goods.